Diet influences microbiome in human colonic mucosa
Dietary quality significantly influences the colon’s microbiome
Jiao and her colleagues found that a good-quality diet as the one recommended by the Dietary Guidelines for Americans to be high in fruits, vegetables and whole grains, and low in added sugar, alcoholic beverages and solid fats is associated with higher abundance of beneficial bacteria such as those with anti-inflammatory properties. A poor-quality diet, on the other hand, is associated with more potentially pathogenic bacteria, such as Fusobacteria, which has been linked to colorectal cancer.
The researchers propose that the effect diet has on the structure of bacterial communities in human colonic mucosa can lead to modifications of innate immunity, inflammation and the risk of chronic diseases.
Their next step is to confirm the study findings in a larger study population. In addition, they want to investigate how bacterial products, or metabolites, such as short-chain fatty acids or secondary bile acids, can modify tissue microenvironment into one that either inhibits or promotes tumor growth or development of other diseases. Also, Jiao and her colleagues are interested in investigating how the unfavorable gut microbiome in individuals consuming a poor diet would respond to tailored dietary intervention using diet, pre- or probiotics, as previous studies have produced mixed results.
“Other factors, such as aging, genetics or certain medications, also influence the risk of disease but we cannot modify them,” Jiao said. “Diet, on the other hand, can be modified and thus provides a strategy to develop a microbiome that promotes healthy living. We suggest that modifying the microbiome through diet may be a part of a plan to reduce the risk of chronic diseases.”
Other contributors to this work include Yanhong Liu, Nadim J. Ajami, Hashem B. El-Serag, Clark Hair, David Y. Graham, Donna L. White, Liang Chen, Zhensheng Wang, Sarah Plew, Jennifer Kramer, Rhonda Cole, Ruben Hernaez, Jason Hou, Nisreen Husain, Maria E. Jarbrink-Sehgal, Fasiha Kanwal, Gyanprakash Ketwaroo, Yamini Natarajan, Rajesh Shah, Maria Velez, Niharika Mallepally and Joseph F. Petrosino. The authors are affiliated with one of more of the following institutions: Baylor College of Medicine, Michael E. DeBakey Veterans Affairs Medical Center and Texas Medical Center Digestive Disease Center.
This study was supported by the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (RP140767), Gillson Longenbaugh Foundation, Golfers Against Cancer and the NIH grant K07CA181480. Partial support was provided by facilities and resources of the Houston Veterans Affairs Health Services Research & Development Center for Innovations in Quality, Effectiveness and Safety (CIN13-413). Further support came from a Research Training Grant from the Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (RP160097).