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BCM - Baylor College of Medicine

Giving life to possible

Obstetrics and Gynecology

Gynecologic Reconstructive Surgery

Reconstructive surgery can be used to treat urogynecological conditions and restore normal female anatomy and function.

Gynecologic reconstructive surgery can be performed to treat urinary incontinencefistulasfecal incontinence, and pelvic organ prolapse, including uterine prolapse, a fallen bladder (cystocele), and a fallen rectum (rectocele), among other procedures.

Gynecologic reconstructive procedures range from minimally invasive procedures performed as outpatient surgery to major surgery performed under general anesthesia.

Laparoscopic Reconstructive Surgery

With laparoscopic surgery, the surgeon can operate without making a large incision.

In laparoscopic surgery, a thin, lighted tube with a camera on the end, known as a laparoscope, is inserted into the abdomen through a small incision. The camera sends images of the inside of the body to a TV monitor in the operating room, allowing the surgeon to see and operate on the pelvic organs without having to use a long incision. Other small incisions may be made in the abdomen to insert very fine specialized surgical instruments.

Benefits of laparoscopic reconstructive surgery can include:

  • Less pain compared to open abdominal surgery
  • Fewer complications
  • Less scarring
  • Shorter hospital stays
  • Faster recovery

Many patients go home the same day (outpatient surgery) or the next morning after laparoscopic surgery.

Robotic-Assisted Surgery

With robotic surgical systems, the surgeon can operate through a very small incision, manipulating robotic arms to perform complex tasks with precision and dexterity that can't be achieved through open surgery or traditional minimally invasive surgery. A 3-D imaging console gives the surgeon the view they would normally see during open surgery.

Because robotic-assisted surgery is less invasive, patients can benefit from:

  • Less pain
  • Fewer complications
  • Less blood loss
  • Less risk of infection
  • Less scarring
  • Shorter hospital stays
  • Faster recovery

Vaginal Mesh Procedures

A vaginal mesh procedure is a surgical procedure used to treat pelvic organ prolapse, the sagging or falling of pelvic organs due to weakened support muscles.

In this procedure, a piece of synthetic mesh or tissue is placed under the urethra to create a hammock or sling to support the urethra and vagina. The synthetic mesh provides a framework of support for the weakened vaginal tissue. Tiny holes in the mesh allow the body's own tissue to grow into it.

Vaginal mesh procedures can be performed vaginally or through minimally invasive laparoscopic or robotic surgery.

Corrective surgery can be performed for exposed mesh.