Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

A technique to amplify a single or few copies of a piece of DNA by several orders of magnitude, generating millions or more copies of a particular DNA sequence


A chain of amino acids linked together. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins.

Positive-sense RNA

Viral RNA that has the same base sequence as mRNA which allows it to function as a template for protein synthesis during viral replication


Live microorganisms that are intended to have health benefits. They consist of members of the microbiota that have beneficial effects and may be used to counter the damaging effects of harmful bacteria. For example, they may help prevent diarrhea caused by some infections and antibiotics.


Components of cells and viruses that play structural and functional roles in cells