Bacteria

The implementation of next generation sequencing technologies have provided further insights into the role of bacterial microbiome in human health and disease. The assessment of molecular profiling is a potential tool to deliver solutions for human health application, which can also benefit efforts towards personalized medicine. View an article on How Gut Microbiome Helps Fight Cancer.

Archaea

Archaea are not only present in extreme environments, but also in oceans, freshwaters, sediments and the human gut. Humans host methanogenic archaea in their guts because of the accumulation of H2 gases derived from anaerobic fermentation processes of food that have escaped digestion from the upper intestinal tract.

credit: Scott Holmes
Viruses

Next generation sequencing has allowed the discovery of new viruses and better characterization of the virome in healthy and diseased humans, thus allowing the association with specific diseases. But most importantly, the regulation of the human immune response from either bacterial or viral infections is a new possibility that integrates the modulation of infection outcomes. View article on the Human Virome.

Fungi

Although fungi are often at low abundance in healthy people, the 'mycobiome' of diseased individuals can be altered and contribute to the illness. In order to study the entire human microbiome, we have established pipelines to sequence the eukaryotic rRNA operon’s second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) to examine fungi, and the 18S rRNA gene to examine the full range of microeukaryotes, including protists. View an article on the Human Mycobiome.