Bergmann R, Kubeil M, Zarschler K, Chhabra S, Tajhya RB, Beeton C, Pennington MW, Bachmann M, Norton RS, Stephan H. Distribution and kinetics of the Kv1.3-blocking peptide HsTX1[R14A] in experimental rats. Sci Rep. 2017 Jun 16;7(1):3756.

Tanner MR, Pennington MW, Laragione T, Gulko PS, Beeton C. KCa1.1 channels regulate β1 integrin function and cell adhesion in rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes. FASEB J. 2017 Apr 20. pii: fj.201601097R. doi: 10.1096/fj.201601097R. [Epub ahead of print]

Tanner MR, Tajhya RB, Huq R, Gehrmann EJ, Rodarte KE, Atik MA, Norton RS, Pennington MW, Beeton C. Prolonged immunomodulation in inflammatory arthritis using the selective Kv1.3 channel blocker HsTX1[R14A] and its PEGylated analog. Clin Immunol. 2017 Apr 4;180:45-57.

Tajhya RB, Patel RS, Beeton C. Detection of Matrix Metalloproteinases by Zymography. Methods Mol Biol. 2017;1579:231-244.


Tajhya RB, Hu X, Tanner MR, Huq R, Kongchan N, Neilson JR, Rodney GG, Horrigan FT, Timchenko LT, Beeton C. Functional KCa1.1 channels are crucial for regulating the proliferation, migration and differentiation of human primary skeletal myoblasts. Cell Death Dis. 2016 Oct 20;7(10):e2426.

Fortune RD, Grill RJ Jr, Beeton C, Tanner M, Huq R, Loose DS. Changes in gene expression and metabolism in the testes of the rat following spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2016 Oct 18.

Petho Z, Tanner MR, Tajhya RB, Huq R, Laragione T, Panyi G, Gulko PS, Beeton C. Different expression of β subunits of the KCa1.1 channel by invasive and non-invasive human fibroblast-like synoviocytes. Arthritis Res Ther. 2016 May 10;18(1):103.

Huq R, Samuel EL, Sikkema WK, Nilewski LG, Lee T, Tanner MR, Khan FS, Porter PC, Tajhya RB, Patel RS, Inoue T, Pautler RG, Corry DB, Tour JM, Beeton C. Preferential uptake of antioxidant carbon nanoparticles by T lymphocytes for immunomodulation. Sci Rep. 2016 Sep 22;6:33808.

Inoue T, Griffin DM, Huq R, Samuel EL, Ruano SH, Stinnett G, Majid TJ, Beeton C, Tour JM, Pautler RG. Characterization of a novel MR-detectable nanoantioxidant that mitigates the recall immune response. NMR Biomed. 2016 Oct;29(10):1436-44.


Ayyar B.V., Tajhya R.B., Beeton C., Atassi M.Z. (2015) Antigenic sites on the HN domain of botulinum neurotoxin A stimulate protective antibody responses against active toxin. Sci. Rep. 5:15776.

Laragione T., Cheng K.F., Tanner M.R., He M., Beeton C., Al-Abed Y., Gulko P.S. (2015) The cation channel Trpv2 is a new suppressor of arthritis severity, joint damage and synovial fibroblast invasion. Clin. Immunol. 158:183-192.

Chang S.C., Huq R., Chhabra S. Beeton C., Pennington M.W., Smith B.J., Norton R.S. (2015) N-terminally extended analogues of ShK as potent and selective blockers of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3. FEBS J. 282:2247-2259.

Lee C.S., Dagnino-Acosta A., Yarotskyy V., Hanna A., Lyfenko A., Knoblauch M., Georgiou D.K., Poché R.A., Swank M.W., Long C., Ismailov I.I., Lanner J., Tran T., Dong K., Rodney G.G., Dickinson M.E., Beeton C., Zhang P., Dirksen R.T., Hamilton S.L. (2015) Ca(2+) permeation and/or binding to CaV1.1 fine-tunes skeletal muscle Ca(2+) signaling to sustain muscle function. Skelet. Muscle, 5:4.

Pennington M.W., Chang S.C., Chauhan S., Huq R., Tajhya R.B., Chhabra S., Norton R.S., Beeton C. (2015) Development of highly selective Kv1.3-blocking peptides based on the sea anemone peptide ShK. Mar. Drugs 13:529-542.

Tanner M.R., Hu X., Huq R., Tajhya R.B., Sun L., Khan F.S., Laragione T., Horrigan F.T., Gulko P.S., Beeton C. (2015) KCa1.1 inhibition attenuates fibroblast-like synoviocyte invasiveness and ameliorates disease in rat models of rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Rheumatol. 67:96-106.

Norton R.S., Pennington M.W., Beeton C. (2015) Transforming a toxin into a therapeutic: the sea anemone potassium channel blocker ShK toxin for treatment of autoimmune diseases in Venoms to drugs: Venom as a source for the development of human therapeutics, G.F. King, Editor. ISBN 978-1-84973-663-3. 


Ge L., Hoa N.T., Wilson Z., Arismendi-Morillo G., Kong X.T., Tajhya R.B., Beeton C., Jadus M.R. (2014) Big Potassium (BK) ion channels in biology, disease and possible targets for cancer immunotherapy. Int. Immunopharmacol.14:S1567. PMCID in process.

Chhabra S., Chang S.C., Nguyen H.M., Huq R., Tanner,  M.R., Londono L.M., Estrada R., Dhawan V., Chauhan S., Upadhyay S.K., Gindin M., Hotez P.J., Valenzuela J.G., Mohanty B., Swarbrick J.D., Wulff H., Iadonato S.P., Gutman G.A., Beeton C., Pennington M.W., Norton R.S., Chandy K.G. (2014) Kv1.3 channel-blocking immunomodulatory peptides from parasitic worms: implications for autoimmune diseases. FASEB J. 14:251967. PMCID: PMC4139903.

Hoa N.T., Ge L., Tajhya R.B., Beeton C., Cornforth A.N., Abolhoda A., Lambrecht N., DaCosta Iyer M., Yi O., Mai A., Hong E., Shon J., Hickey M.J.,  Erickson K., Kruse C.A., Jadus M.R. (2014) Small cell lung cancer cells express the late stage gBK tumor antigen: a possible immunotarget for the terminal disease. Am. J. Transl. Res. 6:188-205. PMCID: PMC4058303.

Koshy S., Huq R., Tanner M.R., Atik M.A., Porter P.C., Khan F.S., Pennington M.W., Hanania N.A., Corry D.B., Beeton C. (2014) Blocking Kv1.3 channels inhibits Th2 lymphocyte function and treats a rat model of asthma. J. Biol. Chem. 289:12623-12632. PMCID: PMC4007452.

Rashid M.H., Huq R., Tanner M.R., Chhabra S., Estrada R., Dhawan V., Chauhan S., Pennington M.W., Beeton C., Kuyucak S., Norton R.S. (2014) A potent and Kv1.3-selective analogue of the scorpion toxin HsTX1 as a potential therapeutic for autoimmune diseases. Sci. Rep. 4:4509. PMCID: PMC3968461.

Panyi G., Beeton C., Felipe A. (2014) Ion channels and anti-cancer immunity. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B, Special Issue on Ion Channels, Transporters, and Cancer.369:20130106. PMCID: PMC3917360.


Rashid M.H., Heinzelmann G., Huq R., Tajhya R.B., Chang S.C., Chhabra S., Pennington M.W., Beeton C., Norton R.S., Kuyucak S. (2013) A potent and selective peptide blocker of the Kv1.3 channel: prediction from free-energy simulations and experimental confirmation. PLoS ONE 8:e78712. PMCID: PMC3820677.

Beeton C. (2013) Targets and therapeutic properties of venom peptides in The handbook of peptides, 2nd edition, A.J. Kastin, Editor. ISBN 978-0-12-385095-9.

Koshy S., Wu D., Hu X., Tajhya R.B., Huq R., Khan F., Pennington M.W., Wulff H., Yotnda P., Beeton C. (2013) Blocking KCa3.1 channels increases tumor cell killing by a subpopulation of human natural killer lymphocytes. PLoS ONE 8:e76740. PMCID: PMC3795664.


Varga Z., Gurrola-Briones G., Papp F., Rodriguez de la Vega R.C., Pedraza-Alva G., Tajhya R.B., Gaspar R., Cardenas L., Rosenstein Y., Beeton C., Possani L.D., Panyi G. (2012) Vm24, a natural immunosuppressive peptide, potently and selectively blocks Kv1.3 potassium channels of human T cells. Mol. Pharmacol. 82:372-382. PMCID: PMC3422703.

Anangi R., Koshy S., Huq R., Beeton C., Chuang W.J., King G.F. (2012) Recombinant expression of margatoxin and agitoxin-2 in Pichia pastoris: an efficient method for production of KV1.3 channel blockers. PLoS ONE. 7:e52965. PMCID: PMC3530466.

Tarcha E.J., Chi V., Munoz-Elias E., Bailey D., Londono L.M., Upadhyay S.K., Norton K., Olson A., Tjong I., Nguyen H., Hu X., Rupert G.W., Boley S.E., Slauter R., Sams J., Knapp B., Pennington M.W., Beeton C., Chandy K.G., Iadonato S.P. (2012) Durable pharmacological responses from the peptide ShK-186, a specific Kv1.3 channel inhibitor that suppresses T cell mediators of autoimmune disease. J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 342:642-653. PMCID: PMC3422530.

Hu X., Laragione T., Sun L., Koshy S., Jones K.R., Ismailov I.I., Yotnda P., Horrigan, F.R., Gulko P.S., Beeton C. (2012). KCa1.1 potassium channels regulate key proinflammatory and invasive properties of fibroblast-like synoviocytes in rheumatoid arthritis. J. Biol. Chem. 287:4014-4022. PMCID: PMC3281680.

Chi V., Pennington M.W., Norton R.S., Tarcha E., Londono L., Sims-Fahey B., Upadhyay S.K., Lakey J.T., Iadonato S., Wulff H., Beeton C., Chandy K.G. (2012) Development of a sea anemone toxin as an immunomodulator for therapy of autoimmune diseases. Toxicon. 59:529-546. PMCID: PMC3397671.

Pennington M.W., Harunur R.M., Tajhya R.B., Beeton C., Kuyucak S., Norton R.S. (2012) A C-terminally amidated analogue of ShK is a potent and selective blocker of the voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3. FEBS Lett. 586:3996-4001. PMCID: PMC3496055.

Chang S.C., Galea C.A., Leung E.W., Tajhya R.B., Beeton C., Pennington, M.W., Norton R.S. (2012) Expression and isotopic labelling of the potassium channel blocker ShK toxin as a thioredoxin fusion protein in bacteria. Toxicon 60:840-850. PMCID: PMC3411878.


Beeton C., Pennington M.W., Norton R.S. (2011) Analogs of the sea anemone potassium channel blocker ShK for the treatment of autoimmune diseases. Inflam. Allergy Drug Targets. 10:313-321. PMCID: PMC3398462.

Mkhikian H., Grigorian A., Li C.F., Chen H.L., Newton B.L., Zhou R.W., Beeton C., Torossian S., Tatarian G.G., Lee S.U., Lau K., Walker E., Siminovitch K., Chandy K.G., Yu Z., Dennis J.W., Demetriou M. (2011) Genetics and the environment converge to dysregulate N-glycosylation in multiple sclerosis. Nat. Commun. 2:334. PMCID: PMC3133923.


Hu, X., Beeton, C. (2010) Detection of functional matrix metalloproteinases by zymography. J. Vis. Exp. 45, e2445, DOI: 10.3791/2445. PMCID: PMC3159606.

Koshy, S., Alizadeh, P., Timchenko, L.T., Beeton, C. (2010) Quantitative measurement of GLUT4 translocation to the plasma membrane by flow cytometry. J. Vis. Exp. 45, e2429, DOI: 10.3791/2429. PMCID: PMC3159605.


Pennington M.W., Beeton C., Chi V., Monaghan K., Garcia A., Rangaraju S., Giuffrida A., Plank D., Crossley G., Nugent D., Peshenko I., Dixon C., Chauhan S., Inoue T., Hu X., Moore R.V., Norton R.S., Chandy K.G. (2009) Engineering a stable and selective peptide blocker of the Kv1.3 channel in T lymphocytes. Mol. Pharmacol. 75:762-773. PMCID: PMC2684922.


Beeton C.*, Smith B.J.*, Sabo J.K., Crossley G., Nugent D., Khaytin I., Chi V., Chandy K.G., Pennington M.W., Norton R.S. (2008) The D-diastereomer of ShK toxin selectively blocks voltage-gated K+ channels and inhibits T lymphocyte proliferation. J. Biol. Chem. 283:988-997. *Equal contribution.

Matheu M.P., Beeton C., Parker I., Chandy K.G., Cahalan M.D. (2008) Imaging effector memory T cells in the ear after induction of adoptive DTH. J. Vis. Exp. 18, e907, DOI: 10.3791/907. PMCID: PMC2557091.

Matheu M.P.*, Beeton C.*, Garcia A., Chi V., Rangaraju S., Safrina O., Monaghan K., Uemura M.I., Li D., Pal S., de la Maza L.M., Monuki E., Flügel A., Pennington M.W., Parker I., Chandy K.G., Cahalan M.D. (2008) Imaging of effector memory T cells during a delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction and suppression by Kv1.3 channel block. Immunity. 29:602-614. *Equal contribution. PMCID: PMC2732399.


Beeton C., Chandy K.G. (2007) Isolation of mononuclear cells from the central nervous system of rats with EAE. J. Vis. Exp. 10, e527, DOI: 10.3791/527. PMCID: PMC2557079.

Beeton C., Chandy K.G. (2007) Preparing T cell growth factor from rat splenocytes. J. Vis. Exp. 9, e402, DOI: 10.3791/402. PMCID: PMC2557076.

Beeton C., Chandy K.G. (2007) Enrichment of NK cells from human blood with the RosetteSep kit from StemCell technologies. J. Vis. Exp. 8, e326, DOI: 10.3791/326. PMCID: PMC2562500.

Beeton C., Chandy K.G. (2007) Induction and monitoring of adoptive delayed-type hypersensitivity in rats. J. Vis.  Exp. 8, e325, DOI: 10.3791/325. PMCID: PMC2956222.

Beeton C., Garcia A., Chandy K.G. (2007) Drawing blood from rats through the saphenous vein and by cardiac puncture. J. Vis. Exp. 7, e266, DOI: 10.3791/266. PMCID: PMC2565848.

Beeton C. (2007) Discovery on Target 2007--CHI's Fifth Annual Conference. Ion channels. IDrugs. 10:851-854.

Beeton C., Chandy K.G. (2007) Induction and monitoring of active delayed type hypersensitivity (DTH) in rats. J. Vis. Exp. 6, e237, DOI: 10.3791/237. PMCID: PMC2557114.

Beeton C., Garcia A., Chandy K.G. (2007) Induction and clinical scoring of chronic-relapsing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. J. Vis. Exp. 5, e224, DOI: 10.3791/224. PMCID: PMC2557091.


Beeton C.,Wulff H., Standifer N.E., Azam P., Mullen K.M., Pennington M.W., Kolski-Andreaco A., Wei E., Grino A., Counts D.R., Wang P.H., LeeHealey C.J., Andrews B.S., Sankaranarayanan A., Homerick D., Roeck W.W., Tehranzadeh J., Stanhope K.L., Zimin P., Havel P.J., Griffey S., Knaus H.G., Nepom G.T., Gutman G.A., Calabresi P.A., Chandy K.G. (2006) Kv1.3 channels are a therapeutic target for T cell-mediated autoimmune diseases. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 103:17414-17419. PMCID: PMC1859943. 

Chandy K.G., Wulff H., Beeton C., Calabresi P.A., Gutman G.A., Pennington M.W. (2006) The Kv1.3 potassium channel: physiology, pharmacology and therapeutic indications in Voltage-gated ion channels as drug targets, D.J. Triggle, M. Gopalakrishnan, D. Rampe, Editors. ISBN 3-527-31258-7 – Wiley-VCH, Weinheim.

Beeton C., Gutman G.A., Chandy K.G. (2006) Targets and therapeutic properties of venom peptides in The handbook of peptides, A.J. Kastin, Editor. ISBN 0123694426 - Academic Press Inc., U.S.A.


Beeton C.*, Pennington M.W.*, Wulff, H., Singh S., Nugent D., Crossley G., Khaytin I., Chen C.Y., Calabresi P.A., Chandy K.G. (2005) Targeting effector memory T cells with a selective peptide inhibitor of Kv1.3 channels for therapy of autoimmune diseases. Mol. Pharmacol. 67:1369-1381. *Equal contribution.

Beeton C. and Chandy K.G. (2005) Potassium channels, memory T cells, and multiple sclerosis. Neuroscientist. 11:550-562.

Rus H., Pardo C., Hu L., Darrah E., Cudrici C., Niculescu T., Niculescu F., Mullen K.M., Allie R., Gao L., Wulff H., Beeton C., Judge S., Knaus H.G., Chandy K.G, and Calabresi P.A. (2005) The voltage-gated potassium channel Kv1.3 is highly expressed on inflammatory infiltrates in multiple sclerosis brain. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 102:11094-11099. PMCID: PMC1182417.

Carrega L., Mosbah A., Ferrat G., Beeton C., Andreotti N., Mansuelle P., Darbon H., De Waard M., Sabatier J.M. (2005) The impact of the fourth disulfide bridge in scorpion toxins of the alpha-KTx6 subfamily. Proteins. 61:1010-1023.


Vennekamp J., Wulff H., Beeton C., Calabresi P.A., Grissmer S., Hänsel W., Chandy K.G. (2004) Kv1.3-blocking 5-phenylalkoxypsoralens: a new class of immunomodulators. Mol. Pharmacol. 65:1365-1374.

Devaux J., Beeton C., Béraud E., Crest M. (2004) Ion channels and demyelination: basis of a treatment of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) by potassium channel blockers. Rev. Neurol. 160:S16-27.

Chandy K.G., Wulff H., Beeton C., Pennington M., Gutman G.A., Cahalan M.D. (2004) K+ channels as targets for specific immunomodulation. Trends Pharmacol. Sci. 25:280-289.

Regaya I., Beeton C., Ferrat G., Andreotti N., Darbon H., De Waard M., Sabatier J.M. (2004) Evidence for domain-specific recognition of SK and Kv channels by MTX and HsTx1 scorpion toxins. J. Biol. Chem. 279:55690-55696.


Beeton C., Wulff H., Singh S., Botsko S., Crossley G., Gutman G.A., Cahalan M.D., Pennington M., Chandy K.G. (2003) A novel fluorescent toxin to detect and investigate Kv1.3 channel up-regulation in chronically activated T lymphocytes. J. Biol. Chem. 278:9928-9937.

Devaux J., Forni C., Beeton C., Barbaria J., Béraud E., Gola M., and Crest M. (2003) Myelin basic protein-reactive T cells induce conduction failure in vivo but not in vitro. Neuroreport 14:317-320.

Wulff H., Beeton C., Chandy K.G. (2003) Potassium channels as therapeutic targets for autoimmune disorders. Curr. Opin. Drug Discov. Devel. 6:640-647

Wulff H., Calabresi PA, Allie R., Yun S., Pennington M., Beeton C., and Chandy KG. (2003) The voltage-gated Kv1.3 K+ channel in effector memory T cells as new target for MS. J. Clin. Invest. 111:1703-1713. PMCID: PMC156104.


Béraud E., Devaux J., Beeton C., Clot-Faybesse O., Barbaria J., Crest M. (2002) Potassium channel blockers modify central nervous conduction, inhibit T-lymphocyte proliferation, and improve experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in Ion channels and physiopathologies of nerve conduction and cell proliferation, B. Rouzaire-Dubois, E. Benoit & J.M. Dubois, Editors, ISBN 81-7736-135-X.


Beeton C.*, Wulff H.*, Barbaria J., Clot-Faybesse O., Pennington M., Bernard D., Cahalan M.D., Chandy K.G., Béraud E. (2001) Selective blockade of T lymphocyte K+ channels ameliorates experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, a model for multiple sclerosis. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 98:13942-13947. *Equal contribution. PMCID: PMC61146.

Beeton C., Barbaria J., Devaux J., Benoliel A.-M., Gola M., Sabatier J.-M., Bernard D., Crest M., Béraud E. (2001) Selective blocking of voltage-gated K+ channels improves experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and inhibits T cell activation. J. Immunol. 166:936-944.