Department of Neurology

Clinical Neurophysiology References


American Academy of Neurology


American Clinical Neurophysiology Society


Recommended Reading List


Basics of EEG interpretation

1. Hrachovy RA, Frost JD. The EEG in selected generalized seizures. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;23(4):312-332. doi:10.1097/01.wnp.0000228496.66246.e0

2. Blume WT. Drug effects on EEG. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;23(4):306-311. doi:10.1097/01.wnp.0000229137.94384.fa

3. Mendez OE, Brenner RP. Increasing the yield of EEG. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;23(4):282-293. doi:10.1097/01.wnp.0000228514.40227.12

4. Verma A, Radtke R. EEG of partial seizures. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;23(4):333-339. doi:10.1097/01.wnp.0000228497.89734.7a

5. Tatum WO, Husain AM, Benbadis SR, Kaplan PW. Normal adult EEG and patterns of uncertain significance. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;23(3):194-207. doi:10.1097/01.wnp.0000220110.92126.a6

6. Benbadis S. The EEG in Nonepileptic seizures. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2006;23(4):340-352.

7. Kane N, Acharya J, Benickzy S, et al. A revised glossary of terms most commonly used by clinical electroencephalographers and updated proposal for the report format of the EEG findings. Revision 2017. Clin Neurophysiol Pract. 2017;2:170-185. doi:10.1016/j.cnp.2017.07.002

8. Acharya JN, Acharya VJ. Overview of EEG Montages and Principles of Localization. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2019;36(5):325-329. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000538

9. Kutluay E, Kalamangalam GP. Montages for Noninvasive EEG Recording. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2019;36(5):330-336. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000546

10. Asadi-Pooya AA, Sperling MR. Normal Awake, Drowsy, and Sleep EEG Patterns That Might Be Overinterpreted as Abnormal. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2019;36(4):250-256. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000585

11. Kang JY, Krauss GL. Normal Variants Are Commonly Overread as Interictal Epileptiform Abnormalities. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2019;36(4):257-263. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000613

12. Mathias S V., Bensalem-Owen M. Artifacts That Can Be Misinterpreted as Interictal Discharges. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2019;36(4):264-274. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000605

13. McKay JH, Tatum WO. Artifact Mimicking Ictal Epileptiform Activity in EEG. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2019;36(4):275-288. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000597

14. Tsuchida TN, Acharya JN, Halford JJ, et al. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline Introduction. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;33:301-302. doi:10.1097/wnp.0000000000000322

15. Sinha SR, Sullivan L, Sabau D, et al. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 1. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;33(4):303-307. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000308

16. Acharya JN, Hani AJ, Cheek J, Thirumala P, Tsuchida TN. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 2: Guidelines for Standard Electrode Position Nomenclature. Neurodiagn J. 2016;56(4):245-252. doi:10.1080/21646821.2016.1245558

17. Acharya JN, Hani AJ, Thirumala PD, Tsuchida TN. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 3. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;33:312-316. doi:10.1097/wnp.0000000000000322

18. Halford JJ, Sabau D, Drislane FW, Tsuchida TN, Sinha SR. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 4: Recording Clinical EEG on Digital Media. Neurodiagn J. 2016;56(4):261-265. doi:10.1080/21646821.2016.1245563

19. Kuratani J, Pearl PL, Sullivan LR, et al. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 5: Minimum Technical Standards for Pediatric Electroencephalography. Neurodiagn J. 2016;56(4):266-275. doi:10.1080/21646821.2016.1245568

20. Stecker MM, Sabau D, Sullivan LR, et al. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 6: Minimum Technical Standards for EEG Recording in Suspected Cerebral Death. Neurodiagn J. 2016;56(4):276-284. doi:10.1080/21646821.2016.1245575

21. Tatum WO, Selioutski O, Ochoa JG, et al. American Clinical Neurophysiology Society Guideline 7: Guidelines for EEG Reporting. Neurodiagn J. 2016;56(4):285-293. doi:10.1080/21646821.2016.1245576

22. Scheffer IE, Berkovic S, Capovilla G, et al. ILAE classification of the epilepsies: Position paper of the ILAE Commission for Classification and Terminology. Epilepsia. 2017:1-10. doi:10.1111/epi.13709

23. Fisher RS, Cross JH, D’Souza C, et al. Instruction manual for the ILAE 2017 operational classification of seizure types. Epilepsia. 2017:1-12. doi:10.1111/epi.13671

24. Herman ST, Abend NS, Bleck TP, et al. Consensus statement on continuous EEG in critically ill adults and children, part I: indications. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2015;32(2):87-95. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000166

25. Herman ST, Abend NS, Bleck TP, et al. Consensus Statement on Continuous EEG in Critically Ill Adults and Children, Part II: Personnel, Technical Specifications, and Clinical Practice. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2015;32(2):96-108.

26. Gaspard N, Manganas L, Rampal N, Petroff OAC, Hirsch LJ. Similarity of lateralized rhythmic delta activity to periodic lateralized epileptiform discharges in critically ill patients. JAMA Neurol. 2013;70(10):1288-1295. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2013.3475

27. Rodríguez V, Rodden MF, LaRoche SM. Ictal-interictal continuum: A proposed treatment algorithm. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;127(4):2056-2064. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2016.02.003

28. Foreman B, Mahulikar A, Tadi P, et al. Generalized periodic discharges and “triphasic waves”: A blinded evaluation of inter-rater agreement and clinical significance. Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;127(2):1073-1080. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2015.07.018

29. Claassen J, Mayer SA, Kowalski RG, Emerson RG, Hirsch LJ. Detection of electrographic seizures with continuous EEG monitoring in critically ill patients. Neurology. 2004;62(10):1743-1748. doi:10.1212/01.WNL.0000125184.88797.62

30. Trinka E, Cock H, Hesdorffer D, et al. SPECIAL REPORT A definition and classification of status epilepticus – Report of the ILAE Task Force on Classification of Status Epilepticus Comment : Historical. Epilepsia. 2015;56(10):1-9. doi:10.1111/epi.13121

31. Bauerschmidt A, Rubinos C, Claassen J. Approach to Managing Periodic Discharges. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2018;35(4):309-313. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000464

32. Lewis DW, Johnson EL. Prognosis of Periodic and Rhythmic Patterns in Adult and Pediatric Populations. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2018;35(4):303-308. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000442

33. Struck AF, Ustun B, Ruiz AR, et al. Association of an electroencephalography-based risk score with seizure probability in hospitalized patients. JAMA Neurol. 2017;74(12):1419-1424. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.2459

34. Rodriguez Ruiz A, Vlachy J, Lee JW, et al. Association of Periodic and Rhythmic Electroencephalographic Patterns With Seizures in Critically Ill Patients. JAMA Neurol. 2016;74(2):181. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2016.4990

35. Marson AG, Al-Kharusi AM, Alwaidh M, et al. The SANAD study of effectiveness of carbamazepine, gabapentin, lamotrigine, oxcarbazepine, or topiramate for treatment of partial epilepsy: an unblinded randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9566):1000-1015. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60460-7

36. Marson AG, Al-Kharusi AM, Alwaidh M, et al. The SANAD study of effectiveness of valproate, lamotrigine, or topiramate for generalised and unclassifiable epilepsy: an unblinded randomised controlled trial. Lancet. 2007;369(9566):1016-1026. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(07)60461-9

37. Kanner AM, Ashman E, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline update summary : E ffi cacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs I : Treatment of new-onset epilepsy. Neurology. 2018. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000005755

38. Kanner AM, Ashman E, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline update summary : E ffi cacy and tolerability of the new antiepileptic drugs II : Treatment-resistant epilepsy. Neurology. 2018. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000005756

39. Kwan P, Arzimanoglou A, Berg AT, et al. Definition of drug resistant epilepsy: Consensus proposal by the ad hoc Task Force of the ILAE Commission on Therapeutic Strategies. Epilepsia. 2010;51(6):1069-1077. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2009.02397.x

40. Chen Z, Brodie MJ, Liew D, Kwan P. Treatment outcomes in patients with newly diagnosed epilepsy treated with established and new antiepileptic drugs a 30-year longitudinal cohort study. JAMA Neurol. 2018;75(3):279-286. doi:10.1001/jamaneurol.2017.3949

41. Noachtar S, Peters AS. Semiology of epileptic seizures: A critical review. Epilepsy Behav. 2009;15(1):2-9. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2009.02.029

42. Stoyke C, Bilgin O, Noachtar S. Video atlas of lateralising and localising seizure phenomena. Epileptic Disord. 2011;13(2):113-124. doi:10.1684/epd.2011.0433

43. Devinsky O, Cross JH, Laux L, et al. Point-of-care application: ‘Trial of cannabidiol for drug-resistant seizures in the Dravet syndrome.’ N Engl J Med. 2017;14:20-21. doi:10.1016/j.eujim.2017.08.002

44. Thiele EA, Marsh ED, French JA, et al. Cannabidiol in patients with seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (GWPCARE4): a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase 3 trial. Lancet. 2018;0(0):1-12. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(18)30136-3

45. Szaflarski JP, Bebin EM, Comi AM, et al. Long-term safety and treatment effects of cannabidiol in children and adults with treatment-resistant epilepsies: Expanded access program results. Epilepsia. 2018;59(8):1540-1548. doi:10.1111/epi.14477

46. Gaston TE, Bebin EM, Cutter GR, Liu Y, Szaflarski JP. Interactions between cannabidiol and commonly used antiepileptic drugs. Epilepsia. 2017;58(9):1586-1592. doi:10.1111/epi.13852

47. Toledano M, Britton JW, McKeon  a, et al. Utility of an immunotherapy trial in evaluating patients with presumed autoimmune epilepsy. Neurology. 2014;82(18):1578-1586. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000000383

48. Quek AML, Britton JW, McKeon A, et al. Autoimmune Epilepsy. Arch Neurol. 2012;69(5):582-593. doi:10.1001/archneurol.2011.2985

49. Diaz-Arrastia R, Frol AB, Garcia MC, et al. Bilateral memory dysfunction in epilepsy surgery candidates detected by the intracarotid amobarbital procedure (Wada memory test). Epilepsy Behav. 2002;3(1):82-91. doi:10.1006/ebeh.2001.0298

50. Sharan A, Ooi YC, Langfitt J, Sperling MR. Intracarotid amobarbital procedure for epilepsy surgery. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;20(2):209-213. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2010.11.013

51. Myers KA, Johnstone DL, Dyment DA. Epilepsy genetics: Current knowledge, applications, and future directions. Clin Genet. 2019;95(1):95-111. doi:10.1111/cge.13414

52. Mullen SA, Berkovic SF, Berkovic SF, et al. Genetic generalized epilepsies. Epilepsia. 2018;59(6):1148-1153. doi:10.1111/epi.14042

53. Myers KA, Scheffer IE, Berkovic SF. Genetic literacy series: genetic epilepsy with febrile seizures plus. Epileptic Disord. 2018;20(4):232-238. doi:10.1684/epd.2018.0985

54. Helbig I, Heinzen EL, Mefford HC, et al. Primer Part 1 - The building blocks of epilepsy genetics. Epilepsia. 2016;57(6):861-868. doi:10.1111/epi.13381

55. Khan S, Nobili L, Khatami R, et al. Circadian rhythm and epilepsy. Lancet Neurol. 2018;17(12):1098-1108. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(18)30335-1

56. Ng M, Pavlova M. Why Are Seizures Rare in Rapid Eye Movement Sleep? Review of the Frequency of Seizures in Different Sleep Stages. Epilepsy Res Treat. 2013;2013:1-10. doi:10.1155/2013/932790

57. Sutherling WW, Mamelak AN, Thyerlei D, et al. Influence of magnetic source imaging for planning intracranial EEG in epilepsy. Neurology. 2008;71(13):990-996. doi:10.1212/01.wnl.0000326591.29858.1a

58. Kharkar S, Knowlton R. Magnetoencephalography in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2015;46:19-26. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2014.11.029

59. Perucca P, Dubeau F, Gotman J. Intracranial electroencephalographic seizure-onset patterns: Effect of underlying pathology. Brain. 2014;137(1):183-196. doi:10.1093/brain/awt299

60. Pacia S V., Ebersole JS. Intracranial EEG substrates of scalp ictal patterns from temporal lobe foci. Epilepsia. 1997;38(6):642-654. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1997.tb01233.x

61. Lhatoo S, Lacuey N, Ryvlin P. Principles of Stereotactic Electroencephalography in Epilepsy Surgery. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;33(6). doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000264

62. Kalamangalam GP, Tandon N. Stereo-EEG Implantation Strategy. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;33(6):483-489. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000254

63. Gonzalez-Martinez J. The Stereo-Electroencephalography: The Epileptogenic Zone. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;33:522-529. doi:10.1016/

64. Bulacio JC, Chauvel P, McGonigal A. Stereoelectroencephalography: Interpretation. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;33(6):503-510. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000305

65. Cardinale F, Casaceli G, Raneri F, Miller J, Lo Russo G. Implantation of Stereoelectroencephalography Electrodes. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2016;33(6):490-502. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000249

66. Britton JW. Electrical Stimulation Mapping With Stereo-EEG Electrodes. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2018;35(2):110-114. doi:10.1097/WNP.0000000000000443

67. Zangaladze A, Sharan A, Evans J, et al. The effectiveness of low-frequency stimulation for mapping cortical function. Epilepsia. 2008;49(3):481-487. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1167.2007.01307.x

68. Kovac S, Scott C a., Maglajlija V, et al. Comparison of bipolar versus monopolar extraoperative electrical cortical stimulation mapping in patients with focal epilepsy. Clin Neurophysiol. 2014;125(4):667-674. doi:10.1016/j.clinph.2013.09.026

69. So EL, Alwaki A. A guide for cortical electrical stimulation mapping. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2018;35:98-105.

70. Ojemann SG, Berger MS, Lettich E, Ojemann GA. Localization of language function in children: results of electrical stimulation mapping. J Neurosurg. 2009;98(3):465-470. doi:10.3171/jns.2003.98.3.0465

71. Riviello JJ, Kull L, Troup C, Holmes GL. Cortical Stimulation in Children: Techniques and Precautions. Tech Neurosurg. 2003;7(1):12-18. doi:10.1097/00127927-200103000-00004

72. Jacobs J, Wu JY, Perucca P, et al. Removing high-frequency oscillations. Neurology. 2018:10.1212/WNL.0000000000006158. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000006158

73. Frauscher B, von Ellenrieder N, Zelmann R, et al. High-frequency oscillations in the normal human brain. Ann Neurol. 2018:1-12. doi:10.1002/ana.25304

74. Jacobs J, Zijlmans M, Zelmann R, et al. High-frequency electroencephalographic oscillations correlate with outcome of epilepsy surgery. Ann Neurol. 2010;67(2):209-220. doi:10.1002/ana.21847

75. Heck C, Helmers SL, DeGiorgio CM. Vagus nerve stimulation therapy, epilepsy and device parameters. Neurology. 2002;59(4):S31-S37. doi:10.1212/WNL.59.6

76. Elliott RE, Morsi A, Kalhorn SP, et al. Vagus nerve stimulation in 436 consecutive patients with treatment-resistant epilepsy: Long-term outcomes and predictors of response. Epilepsy Behav. 2011;20(1):57-63. doi:10.1016/j.yebeh.2010.10.017

77. Boon P, Vonck K, van Rijckevorsel K, et al. A prospective, multicenter study of cardiac-based seizure detection to activate vagus nerve stimulation. Seizure. 2015;32:52-61. doi:10.1016/j.seizure.2015.08.011

78. Ben-Menachem E, Manon-Espaillat R, Ristanovic R, et al. Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Treatment of Partial Seizures: 1. A controlled study of effect on seizures. Epilepsia. 1994;35(3):616-626.

79. Heck CN, King-Stephens D, Massey AD, et al. Two-year seizure reduction in adults with medically intractable partial onset epilepsy treated with responsive neurostimulation: Final results of the RNS System Pivotal trial. Epilepsia. 2014;55(3):432-441. doi:10.1111/epi.12534

80. King-Stephens D, Mirro E, Weber PB, et al. Lateralization of mesial temporal lobe epilepsy with chronic ambulatory electrocorticography. Epilepsia. 2015;56(6):959-967. doi:10.1111/epi.13010

81. Bergey GK, Morrell MJ, Mizrahi EM, et al. Long-term treatment with responsive brain stimulation in adults with refractory partial seizures. Neurology. 2015;84(8):810-817. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001280

82. Salanova V, Witt T, Worth R, et al. Long-term efficacy and safety of thalamic stimulation for drug-resistant partial epilepsy. Neurology. 2015;84(10):1017-1025. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000001334

83. Jobst BC, Cascino GD. Resective epilepsy surgery for drug-resistant focal epilepsy: a review. Jama. 2015;313(3):285-293. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.17426

84. Wiebe S, Blume WT, Girvin JP, Eliasziw M. A Randomized, Controlled Trial of Surgery for Temporal-Lobe Epilepsy. N Engl J Med. 2001;345(5):311-318.

85. Engel Jr. J, McDermott MP, Wiebe S, et al. Early surgical therapy for drug-resistant temporal lobe epilepsy. Jama. 2012;307(9).

86. de Tisi J, Bell GS, Peacock JL, et al. The long-term outcome of adult epilepsy surgery, patterns of seizure remission, and relapse: a cohort study. Lancet. 2011;378(9800):1388-1395. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(11)60890-8

87. Harden C, Tomson T, Gloss D, et al. Practice guideline: Sudden unexpected death in epilepsy incidence rates and risk factors. Neurology. 2017;88:1674-1680.

88. Ryvlin P, Nashef L, Lhatoo SD, et al. Incidence and mechanisms of cardiorespiratory arrests in epilepsy monitoring units (MORTEMUS): A retrospective study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(10):966-977. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(13)70214-X

89. Park KJ, Sharma G, Kennedy JD, Seyal M. Potentially high-risk cardiac arrhythmias with focal to bilateral tonic-clonic seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures are associated with the duration of periictal hypoxemia. Epilepsia. 2017:1-8. doi:10.1111/epi.13934

90. Gerard EE, Meador KJ. Managing Epilepsy in Women. Contin (Minneap Minn). 2016;22:204-226. doi:10.1054/cuog.2000.0132

91. Hernandez-Diaz S, Smith CR, Shen A, et al. Comparative safety of antiepileptic drugs during pregnancy. Neurology. 2012;78(21):1692-1699. doi:10.1212/WNL.0b013e3182574f39

92. Meador KJ, Baker GA, Browning N, et al. Fetal antiepileptic drug exposure and cognitive outcomes at age 6 years (NEAD study): a prospective observational study. Lancet Neurol. 2013;12(3):244-252. doi:10.1016/S1474-4422(12)70323-X

93. Chen DK, LaFrance WCJ. Diagnosis and Treatment of Nonepileptic Seizures. Contin (Minneap Minn). 2016;22(1):116-131. doi:10.1212/CON.0000000000000282

94. Ney JP, Van Der Goes DN, Nuwer MR. Does intraoperative neurophysiologic monitoring matter in noncomplex spine surgeries? Neurology. 2015;85(24):2151-2158. doi:10.1212/WNL.0000000000002076

95. Nuwer M, Emerson R, Galloway G. Evidence-based guideline update: Intraoperative spinal monitoring with somatosensory and transcranial electrical motor evoked potentials Report of the Therapeutics. Neurology. 2012:585-589.

96. Daube JR, Rubin DI. Needle electromyography. Muscle and Nerve. 2009;39(2):244-270. doi:10.1002/mus.21180

97. Risinger MW, Engel J, Van Ness PC, Henry TR, Crandall PH. Ictal localization of temporal lobe seizures with scalp/sphenoidal recordings. Neurology. 1989;39(10):1288-1293. doi:10.1212/WNL.39.10.1288

98. Salinsky M, Kanter R, Dasheiff RM. Effectiveness of Multiple EEGs in Supporting the Diagnosis of Epilepsy: An Operational Curve. Epilepsia. 1987;28(4):331-334. doi:10.1111/j.1528-1157.1987.tb03652.x