Baylor College of Medicine researchers have been at the forefront of many of the major advances in biomedical sciences over the last century. They:

- Opened the first center for the treatment of polio in the United States

- Developed the first successful implement to straighten the spines of patients with scoliosis

- Pioneered the field of molecular endocrinology with seminal work on steroid hormone action and the discovery of steroid receptor coactivators, master regulatory cells in the body

- Determined the sequences of chromosomes 3, 12 and part of X as part of their role as one of three centers to complete the Human Genome Project

- Led sequencing of many animal genomes, including the mouse, rat, fruit fly, rhesus monkey, honey bee, sea urchin, marmoset, orangutan, and cow

- Discovered the cytoplasmic microtubule complex in eukaryotic cells, a finding that led to use of a new class of cancer drugs including taxol

- Proved using isoniaizid long-term can prevent TB in children with latent infection

- Invented the Dacron graft

- Found that an enterotoxin is responsible for the diarrhea commonly caused in children by rotavirus

- Described the first case of uniparental disomy, in which a child receives both copies of a gene from one parent

- Pioneered gene chip technology that streamlines diagnosis of genetic and chromosomal diseases

- Discovered the gene that causes Rett syndrome, a post natal genetic disorder that affects mainly girls

- Identified new mutations in a cartilage protein that results in a lethal form of the brittle bone disease called osteogenesis imperfect

- Sequenced and annotated the first personalized genome sequence, that of Dr. James Watson, Nobel laureate who described DNA’s double helix

- Developed a translational technique to train T-cells to kill cancers associated with Epstein-Barr virus

- Pioneered the study of eating disorders

- Conducted first successful surgery on the human genome.

- Elucidated the protein interaction network or interactome for autism spectrum disorder

- Developed a new therapy to prevent viral infections after stem cell transplant