Article 5: Health Professions Students Table of Contents

Article 5.1 Admissions

Article 5.2 Non-Discrimination Policy

Article 5.3 Background Checks

Article 5.4  Enrollment

Article 5.5 Tuition and Fees

Article 5.6  Falsification of Admission Application

Article 5.7 Attendance

Article 5.8  Attendance: Clinical Curriculum

Article 5.9 Leave of Absence

Article 5.10 Withdrawal from the College

Article 5.11 Reinstatement of Students Previously Dismissed or Voluntarily Withdrawn

Article 5.12 Credit Hour Assignment

Article 5.13 Grading and Grading Policies

Article 5.13.1 Assignment of Grades

Article 5.13.2 Reporting of Grades

Article 5.13.3 Course Grade Requirements

Article 5.13.4  Interim Grades

Article 5.13.5 Final Grades

Article 5.14 Transcripts

Article 5.15 Student Records

Article 5.16 Release of Information

Article 5.17 Student Grievance Policy

Article 5.18  Technical Standards for Admission and Graduation

Article 5.1 Admissions – Students enrolled in the SHP’s programs are selected after being screened by Health Professions faculty members, interviewed by Health Professions and other College faculty members and students, reviewed and ranked by the Health Professions Program Admissions Committee, and officially accepted to the College by the Dean.

Minimum admissions requirements for the SHP’s degree programs include the following:

• a baccalaureate degree from an accredited college/university in the United States.

• completion of specific course requirements (prerequisites).

• an overall grade point average of 3.0 on a 4.0 scale. competitive scores on the Graduate Record Examination.

• a completed application submitted on or before the published deadline for receipt of applications.

Additional program-specific admission requirements are published on each program’s website. Transfer credit from other institutions will not be accepted (Reference: BCM Policy and Procedure Manual 23.1.05 http://intranet.bcm.edu/index.cfm?fuseaction=Policies.Display_Policy&Policy‌_Number=23.1.05. The Health Professions Program Admissions Committee may grant advanced standing in accordance with program-specific policies.

Article 5.2 Non-Discrimination Policy – The College and the SHP admit students of any race, religion, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, color, national or ethnic origin, disability, or age to all the rights, privileges, programs, and activities generally accorded or made available to students at the School.  The College and the SHP do not discriminate on the basis of race, religion, sex, marital status, sexual orientation, color, national or ethnic origin, disability or age, in administration of its educational policies, admissions policies, scholarship and loan programs, and other school-administered programs.

Article 5.3 Background Checks – All applicants who receive an offer of admission must complete a background check as a condition of matriculation in the SHP. The background check will include a criminal records search, social security number trace, and professional license verification. Applicants have the right to review the reported information for accuracy and completeness and to request that the vendor verify that the background information provided is correct.

• All applicants must complete a background check authorization form when requested. Admission may be denied if an applicant refuses to sign the background check authorization form, omits material facts on the form, or provides false information.

• Any offer of admission will be contingent upon completion of the background check with results deemed satisfactory. Admission may be denied or rescinded based on a review of the background check report.

• If a student is unable to participate in clinical rotations at the College’s affiliated clinical sites due to criminal or other adverse activities that are revealed in a background check, he or she will not be able to fulfill the program requirements. An offer of admission will be rescinded based on the student’s inability to complete the curriculum.

The School of Health Professions will arrange for an outside vendor to conduct background checks and assume the cost of this service. Reports issued directly to the SHP will be kept confidential at all times. Background check reports will be reviewed by a committee comprised of the Dean of the SHP, the Assistant Dean of the SHP, the matriculant’s Program Director and, as needed, a representative from the General Counsel’s office. If the report does not contain any negative findings as determined by the committee, the applicant will be allowed to enroll and participate in clinical rotations. If a report does contain negative findings, the Program Director may request that the applicant submit additional information regarding the negative finding. The Program Director, in consultation with the Dean, the Assistant Dean, and, as needed, the College’s General Counsel, will review all information available and determine appropriate action.

Article 5.4  Enrollment – All Health Professions students must enroll officially through the Registrar’s Office. Students are encouraged not to be employed while concurrently enrolled in a SHP program.

Article 5.5 Tuition and Fees – Tuition and fees are set by the President each academic year. Health Professions students are required to pay 2 - 3 years' tuition charges, based on the program in which they are enrolled. Students who repeat coursework or otherwise extend their enrollment beyond the typical length of their programs will be charged tuition and fees for each additional period of enrollment. Title IV Federal financial aid recipients who meet degree requirements prior to the end of the semester will be subject to the Return of Title IV Funds Policy. All other students will be subject to the Institution's Refund and Repayment Policy. http://intranet.bcm.edu/index.cfm?fuseaction=Policies.Display_Policy&Policy_Number=23.1.04

The full tuition and fee assessment policy, including information regarding leaves of absence, is available in the BCM Policy and Procedure Manual 23.1.02. http://intranet.bcm.edu/index.cfm?fuseaction=Policies.Display_Policy&Policy_Number=23.1.02

A student on an approved leave of absence should also consult Article 7.1 regarding participation in the student health insurance program while on leave.

Article 5.6  Falsification of Admission Application – Occasionally candidates make inaccurate statements or submit false material in connection with their admissions application. In most cases, these misrepresentations are discovered during the application process and the application is rejected. If the misrepresentation is discovered after the candidate is admitted, the offer for admission is normally withdrawn. If misrepresentation is discovered after a student is registered, the offer of admission normally will be revoked and the student will be required to leave the school. If the discovery is made after a degree has been awarded, the degree may be rescinded. The determination that the application is inaccurate or contains misrepresentation rests solely with the Dean, and will be resolved outside the student disciplinary process.

Article 5.7 Attendance – For students in good standing in didactic courses, attendance at lectures is highly recommended, but not obligatory; however, laboratory and small group learning attendance may be required. At departmental discretion, attendance in laboratory and conferences may be a factor in deriving a student’s grade.  Students who are repeating a course because of previous academic failure are required to attend all lectures and labs of the course in question.  If a faculty member in a department finds that a student is not meeting attendance requirements, the student will be notified by the faculty of the department in writing with a copy of the letter sent to the Program Director and the Dean. A student who is on Academic Probation is required to attend all lectures, laboratory sessions, and conferences in the curriculum. A student enrolled in an online course is required to participate in online course activities with regular frequency.

Article 5.8  Attendance: Clinical Curriculum - Attendance during all aspects of clinical courses is expected and considered an important part of the student’s responsibility and education, and may be an important component in the evaluation of student performance. Students form an integral part of the clinical team and are accorded active clinical roles based on the expectation that they will fulfill their educational and patient care responsibilities. All students are required to be present on the first day of a new clinical course. Participation in the orientation session of a new clinical course is mandatory since important information regarding course expectations and procedures is covered on the first day. Requests for exceptions must be arranged with the Program Director. Course expectations and attendance requirements for clinical courses are determined and recorded by the department or clinical site. In addition, students are expected to remain available to discharge clinical responsibilities until released from duty on the final day of the applicable term.

Article 5.9 Leave of Absence –The Dean or Designee may approve a student Leave of Absence upon the Program Director’s recommendation.  Please see Baylor College of Medicine’s Student Leave of Absence Policy 23.1.2 for conditions and definitions.

Please complete the School of Health Professions Leave of Absence Request form to begin the Leave of Absence process.

Article 5.10 Withdrawal from the College – A student who wishes to withdraw from the SHP must personally meet with the Dean and/or the Program Director and submit a letter to the Dean requesting withdrawal. A request to withdraw will not be granted for a student who has been dismissed by action of the Health Professions Student Promotions Committee or whose dismissal is in the appeals process.

The office of the Dean and/or the Program Director will advise the student about the check-out process to be completed within five business days. After five business days, the student who withdraws from a program but has not completed the check-out process is considered withdrawn.

The official records of a student who is withdrawing or has been dismissed from the College will be placed on hold until the check-out process is complete. The College will not release any official records until the student has obtained the required signatures on the check-out form and returned it to the Program Director. The student shall remain responsible for tuition and fees up to the date that the Program Director certifies that the clearance process has been completed. Once the check-out process is deemed complete by the Program Director and the Student Clearance From is processed by the Registrar’s Office, the hold will be removed from the student’s records.

Article 5.11 Reinstatement of Students Previously Dismissed or Voluntarily Withdrawn – A student who wishes to be re-admitted to the College should apply to the respective program in the same way as any new applicant. The respective program shall have available the student's entire permanent record at the College. The Admissions Committee may request any additional information that might help them in their decision. This might include documentation of additional academic and work experience, medical and psychiatric data, etc.

This procedure is applicable to the following:

• Students dismissed for academic reasons

• Students dismissed for nonacademic reasons

• Students who have withdrawn from Baylor College of Medicine

Article 5.12 Credit Hour Assignment – One credit hour is the amount of work represented in intended learning outcomes and verified by evidence of student achievement. Credit hour assignment is an institutionally established equivalency and reasonably approximates the following:

1. Academic credit will be awarded in credit hours. One clock hour will serve as the base unit for awarding academic credit.

2. A credit hour is an amount of work represented in intended learning outcomes and verified by evidence of student achievement.

3. The program will ensure reasonable equivalency for one credit hour across all courses.

4. Reasonable approximations of the time spent in student instruction and learning will receive the following academic credit:

a. One credit hour of classroom learning = 15 hours of classroom instruction and a minimum of 2 hours of out-of-class student work per hour of classroom instruction.

b. One credit hour of laboratory learning = 30 hours of laboratory learning and a minimum of 1 hour of out-of-class student work per hour of laboratory learning.

c. One credit hour of distance learning or research = 45 hours of learning activities considering both time spent online and student work off-line.

d. One credit hour of clinical learning = 100 hours of clinical time where the average across the clinical phase of the program is 50 hours per week.

5. Credit hour assignment for courses including a combination of learning modalities will follow the above criteria in a combined summative fashion.

Credit Hour Assignment

Program Name

Semester Credit Hours Required for Completion

Genetic Counseling

65

Doctor of Nursing Practice

132

Orthotics and Prosthetics

128

Physician Assistant

137

The full policy is available in the BCM Policy and Procedure Manual. http://intranet.bcm.edu/index.cfm?fuseaction=Policies.Display_Policy&Policy_Number=23.1.11

Article 5.13 Grading and Grading Policies

Article 5.13.1 Assignment of Grades – Interim term grades are assigned for courses that continue into the following term; final grades are not available until the course is completed. Individual departments and course directors determine how to calculate course grades and the weight given to each component used to compute interim and final grades. At the conclusion of each didactic and clinical course, the department or course director shall render a final course grade for each enrolled student.

In all pre-clinical courses, clinical courses, clinical rotations, and clinical elective rotations, grades are rendered as shown in Table 1, with the exceptions of specific courses identified below for which grades are rendered as shown in Table 2.  If all requirements have not been met for a course, or a targeted remediation is offered but not completed, a grade of “Incomplete” (I) is assigned.

Table 1. Grade assignments and point values of SHP courses

Grade

Score Range

Quality Points

Interpretation

A

90 – 100

4.0 

Exceptional performance

B

76 – 89

3.0 

Performance meeting expectations

C

70 – 75

2.0 

Unsatisfactory performance (failure)

D

65 – 69

1.0 

Unsatisfactory performance (failure)

F

0 – 64

0.0 

Unsatisfactory performance (failure)

Grades for the following courses are to be rendered as shown in Table 2.

• Clinical Biochemistry

• Anatomical Science 1 & 2

• Human Physiology 1 & 2

• Medical Ethics (OP and PA Students)

• Nervous System (NA students)

Table 2. Alternate grade assignments and point values for selected SHP pre-clinical courses

Grade 

Score Range 

Quality Points

Interpretation

A

90 – 100

4.0

Exceptional performance

B

70 – 89

3.0

Performance meeting expectations

C

65 - 69

2.0

Unsatisfactory performance (failure)

D

60 - 64

1.0

Unsatisfactory performance (failure)

F

0 – 59

0.0

Unsatisfactory performance (failure

Article 5.13.2 Reporting of Grades – Course directors for all didactic and clinical courses report interim and final scores in whole numbers to the appropriate Program Director. Following the completion of exam week each academic term, Program Directors may release course grades with scores to students. Each Program Director reports grades to the Registrar and maintains a cumulative grade sheet that shows all interim and final grades by term for each student in the program.

Article 5.13.3 Course Grade Requirements – All courses require a final grade of B or better. Any final grade lower than a B is a failing grade and the stipulations below under “Final Grades” apply. All grades of Incomplete in pre-clinical courses must be replaced by passing grades before a student may progress to the clinical phase of each program. An incomplete may be assigned in clinical courses where faculty have determined that remediation is necessary and appropriate. The type and extent of remediation will be determined by the Program Director with consideration of the individual student’s learning needs and patient safety. Students may only be assigned two incompletes in clinical courses during the entire program (exclusive of incompletes in pre-clinical courses). If student performance is less than passing in a third clinical course, a final grade of fail will be assigned, after which the SHP Student Promotions Committee will determine whether or not remediation will be offered. All grades of Incomplete must be replaced by passing grades prior to graduation from an SHP program.

Article 5.13.4 Interim Grades

1. All course grades must be A, B, C, D, or F. Course grades of pass or fail alone may not be used.

2. All interim course grades that fall below a B result in a Letter of Jeopardy from the Program Director. The purpose of this letter is to document that the program has informed the student of the interim score and the requirement that performance must improve in order to pass the course. The letter will offer the student educational support, if desired (e.g., meet with course director/faculty, student counseling service).

3. Interim grades that fall below the minimal passing requirement cannot be remediated.

Article 5.13.5 Final Grades

1. Students must achieve a final passing grade of B or better in all courses.

2. Only final course grades can result in formal academic action by the Program Director or HPSPC (e.g., academic probation, dismissal).

3. When a student achieves a final grade of C, D, or F, the Course Director will evaluate for areas of focused knowledge deficits.

a. If a single area of focused knowledge deficit is identified, the Course Director may direct a targeted remediation in the area of weakness.

i. Targeted remediation should occur prior to the HPSPC meeting; if this is not possible, the Course Director reports a grade of incomplete (I) to the Program Director and confers with the Program on a date the remediation will be completed.

ii. Successful targeted remediation results in the lowest passing grade in that course (B) being reported as a final grade to the Program Director.

iii. Unsuccessful targeted remediation results in the original failing grade (C, D, or F) being reported as a final grade to the Program Director.

b. If more than one area of knowledge deficit is identified, the student is not eligible for targeted remediation and the original failing grade (C, D, or F) is reported as a final grade to the Program Director.

4. If a student has a single failing final course grade, the responsible Program Director places the student on academic probation, and arranges comprehensive remediation of the course. The Program Director can authorize comprehensive remediation of two failing final course grades, provided they do not occur concurrently.

a. Comprehensive remediation includes a course examination and/or clinical remediation activities representing all course content areas.

i. Successful comprehensive remediation will result in the lowest passing grade (B) in the course being reported as a final grade to the Program Director. The Program Director will report this grade to the Office of the Registrar.

ii. Failure of comprehensive remediation results in the original failing grade (C, D, or F) being reported as a final grade to the Program Director. The Program Director will report this grade to the Office of the Registrar and refer the matter to the HPSPC. The HPSPC may require the student to repeat the course in its entirety, or other actions deemed appropriate.

5. If a student has two or more concurrent failing final course grades (C, D, or F), the responsible Program Director places the student on academic probation, does not authorize remediation, and refers the matter to the HPSPC. The HPSPC will consider options deemed appropriate, including dismissal.

6. If after successfully remediating two failing final course grades, a student has a third failing final course grade, the responsible Program Director places the student on academic probation, does not authorize remediation, and refers the matter to the HPSPC. The HPSPC will consider options deemed appropriate, including dismissal.

Article 5.14 Transcripts – All final grades appear on transcripts. If all course requirements have not been met, a grade of "I" (Incomplete) will appear on the transcript.

When a completed course has been failed, or remediation is not successful, the initial failing grade of C, D, or F becomes part of the official transcript. When a course has been successfully remediated through targeted or comprehensive remediation the transcript will show only the final grade, which will be the lowest possible passing grade (B) in that course. When a course has been repeated in its entirety, that transcript will show both the original failing grade and the grade achieved in the repeated course.

Article 5.15 Student Records – The College's policy regarding integrity, confidentiality, and retention of student academic records is based upon practices recommended by the American Association of American Collegiate Registrars and Admissions Officers, accreditation requirements of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools Commission on Colleges, and the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act. The full policy is available in the BCM Policy and Procedure Manual 23.1.06. http://intranet.bcm.edu/index.cfm?fuseaction=Policies.Display_Policy&Policy_‌Number=23.1.06

Article 5.16 Release of Information – The College adheres to the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA) that affords students over 18 years of age certain rights with respect to their education records.

1. The right to inspect and review the student’s education record.

2. The right to request the amendment of the student’s education records that the student believes are inaccurate or misleading.

3. The right to consent to disclosures of personally identifiable information contained in the student’s education records, except to the extent that FERPA authorizes disclosure without consent (directory information).

4. The right to file a complaint with the U.S. Department of Education concerning alleged failures by the College to comply with the requirements of FERPA.

Students may request in writing that the College withhold their directory information from inquiring educational sources. Directory Information includes but is not limited to: name, local address and telephone number, major field of study, dates of attendance, class schedules, degrees granted and graduation dates, class standing, and the College’s email address.

Official Grades may only be transmitted from the College to another institution through an official transcript issued by the Office of the Registrar.

If a student requests a letter of recommendation, the individual faculty member may state only the official grade received in the course and a narrative. Official grades are A, B, C, D and F. Departments and faculty of College may not transmit any numerical grade to another institution or individual faculty member. Program directors may transmit required numeric information at the request of the student to academic institutions, licensing agencies, or other official entities.

Departments may discuss grades with individual students and release an individual sealed, confidential report to each student. Departments may post or release general information about course grades including: mean scores and grade distributions; however, Federal Law prohibits the general posting or group release of individual grade information which in any way identifies individual students including the use of a code.

Program faculty will communicate with clinical sites, preceptors and/or coordinators regarding student performance. This communication may be in verbal or written form.

Article 5.17 Student Grievance Policy – This Student Grievance Policy does not supersede policies and procedures concerning student rights, responsibilities, and appeals (Articles 7.8 – 7.9). Moreover, nothing in the policy supplants actions/decisions of the Health Professions Student Promotions Committee. A student’s dissatisfaction with an examination or grade is not grounds for a grievance against the faculty member who assigned the grade.

A grievance is a complaint arising out of any alleged unauthorized or unjustified act or decision by a member of the faculty, administration, or staff that adversely affects the status, rights, or privileges of a member of the student body. The burden of proof shall rest with the complainant.

Student complaints or grievances should initially be addressed, if possible, by the student with the individual (student, faculty, staff) most closely related to the grievance. If no resolution is established, the student must ask her/his Health Professions Program Director for assistance. If the problem cannot be resolved informally or with the assistance of the respective Health Professions Program Director, the student may file a formal, written grievance with the Dean, SHP.

The full policy, including appeals procedures, is available in the BCM Policy and Procedure Manual. http://intranet.bcm.edu/index.cfm?fuseaction=Policies.Display_Policy&Policy_Number=23.1.08

Article 5.18 Technical Standards for Admission and Graduation

Baylor College of Medicine School of Health Professions Sciences

Technical Standards for Admission and Graduation

It is the policy of Baylor College of Medicine that no person shall be denied admission to the school, or awarded a degree from the school on the basis of any disability, pursuant to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) of 1990 and section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, provided that the person demonstrates ability to meet the minimum standards set forth herein. Baylor College of Medicine will reasonably accommodate individuals with disabilities, provided that the standards required by the school of all graduates and the integrity of the school’s curriculum are upheld. Mastery of essential skills is required of all students.

These standards are developed as criteria to achieve the Doctor of Nursing Practice or Master of Science degree in preparation for practice as a Genetic Counselor, Nurse Anesthetist, Orthotist/Prosthetist, Physician Assistant. The faculty is equally cognizant of its responsibilities to patients who will be a part of the educational process and to future patients who will entrust their welfare and lives to graduates of our school. The safety of the patient, on whom the medical education process is largely focused, has been given a primary consideration in developing these standards. Therefore, the faculty must carefully consider the personal and emotional characteristics, motivation, industry, maturity, resourcefulness, and personal health of the aspiring health care professional.

Abilities and Skills Requisite for Genetic Counseling, Nurse Anesthesia, Orthotist/Prosthetist, or Physician Assistant Program Completion – A candidate for the Master of Science degree in either Genetic Counseling, Orthotics and Prosthetics, or Physician Assistant Studies, or the Doctor of Nursing Practice degree in Nurse Anesthesia must have abilities and skills in six essential areas: (1) observation, (2) communication, (3) motor, (4) conceptual, integrative, and quantitative, (5) behavioral and social, and (6) ethical. Technological compensation can be made for disabilities in certain of these areas, but a candidate must be able to perform certain basic functions in a reasonably independent manner. The use of a trained intermediary to observe or interpret information or to perform procedures is deemed to compromise the essential function of the health care professional and may jeopardize the safety of the patient. The six areas of abilities/skills are detailed as follows:

1. Observation. The candidate must be able to:

a. observe demonstrations and experiments in the basic sciences

b. observe a patient accurately at a distance and close at hand

c. discriminate variations in human responses to disease using visual, auditory, tactile, and other sensory cues

d. discriminate changes in monitoring devices and alarms using visual and auditory senses

2. Communication. The candidate must be able to:

a. communicate clearly, effectively, and sensitively in English through oral and written methods in order to communicate with other health care providers and patients of all ages

b. speak, to receive information in oral form, and to observe patients in order to elicit information, to describe changes in mood, activity and posture, and to perceive non-verbal communications

3. Motor. The candidate must have sufficient motor function to:

a. elicit information from patients by palpation, auscultation, percussion, and other diagnostic maneuvers

b. execute motor movements reasonably required to provide general care and emergency treatment to patients. Examples of general care and emergency treatment reasonably required of Nurse Anesthetists and/or Physician Assistants include, but are not limited to, cardiopulmonary resuscitation, airway management, vascular access, medication administration, catheter insertions, suturing, application of pressure to stop bleeding, obstetrical maneuvers, etc. Examples of general care and emergency treatment reasonably required of Orthotists/Prosthetists include, but are not limited to, safe patient handling in transfers and during weight-bearing activities, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation.

c. coordinate gross and fine motor movements, equilibrium and functional use of the senses of touch and vision

d. Orthotist/Prosthetist candidates must be able to lift up to 25 pounds, operate power tools safely, and manipulate materials and components to fashion devices for patient use.

4. Intellectual-Conceptual Integrative and Quantitative Abilities. The candidate must be able to:

a. use reason, analysis, calculations, problem solving, critical thinking, synthesis, self-evaluation and other learning skills to acquire knowledge, comprehend and synthesize complex concepts

b. independently access and interpret medical histories or files

c. identify significant findings from history, physical examination, and laboratory data

d. provide a reasoned explanation for likely diagnoses and prescribed medications, therapies, and devices

e. interpret information derived from auditory, visual, written, and other visual data to determine appropriate patient management plans

f. recall and retain information in an efficient and timely manner

g. incorporate new information from peers, teachers, and the medical literature in formulating diagnoses and plans

h. identify and communicate knowledge to others when indicated

5. Behavioral and Social Attributes. The candidate must possess the emotional health required:

a. for full utilization of his/her intellectual abilities

b. for the exercise of good judgment

c. for the prompt completion of all responsibilities attendant to the diagnosis and care of patients

d. for the development of mature, sensitive, and effective relationships with patients

e. to tolerate physically taxing workloads

f. to function effectively under stress

g. to adapt to changing environments

h. to function flexibly and effectively in stressful and rapidly changing situations

i. to learn to function in the face of uncertainties and ambiguities inherent in the clinical problems of many patients

j. to employ compassion, integrity, concern for others, interpersonal skills, interest and motivation

k. to accept criticism and respond by appropriate behavior modification

l. to use supervision appropriately, and act independently when indicated

m. to demonstrate personal and professional self-control as well as tactfulness, sensitivity, compassion, honesty, integrity, empathy, and respect

6. Ethical Standards: The candidate must demonstrate professional demeanor and behavior, and must perform in an ethical manner in all dealings with peers, faculty, staff, and patients.

Certain disabilities can be accommodated without sacrificing the standards required by the school or compromising the integrity of the curriculum. The school is committed to the development of competitive and qualified candidates with disabilities. At the same time, the school recognizes the essential need to preserve the standards and integrity of the curriculum requisite for competent and effective practice as a Genetic Counselor, Nurse Anesthetist, Orthotist/Prosthetist, or Physician Assistant. Questions about any additional program-specific technical requirements should be addressed to the respective program director. Since the treatment of patients is an essential part of the educational program, the health and safety of those patients must be protected as a first priority.