Fundamentals of Human Neuroimaging (GS-NE- 400)
Neuroimaging has rapidly become one of the most popular and powerful tools for neuroscience. This course surveys a variety of brain imaging modalities, describing what each measures and how the results are used for research. Neuroscience has classically relied on invasive electrode measurements, mostly in animals, to directly map electrical activity in the brain, and modem microelectrode arrays have expanded this method. Two other brain activity measurement schemes, electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), provide non-invasive measurements with excellent temporal resolution but limited spatial accuracy. Recently, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has become tremendously popular because it is non- invasive, involves no ionizing radiation, and offers substantial flexibility. In particular, MRI is used to measure brain structure in a variety of fashions, to measure white-matter connectivity using diffusion-weighted imaging (e.g., DTI), and to measure brain function (e.g., fMRI). Extensive techniques have been developed to localize and probe cortical activity in a variety of specialized areas. Optical imaging techniques have also contributed substantially to our understanding of brain function, mostly as an invasive technique in animal models. Positron-emission tomography (PET) provides additional specialized information about brain function. Students should have introductory physics and calculus capability at the freshman level. 
Credits: 4
Terms: 1-2 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y
Director: Dr. David Ress

Neurobiology of Disease (GS-NE- 422)
This course will cover important and scientifically tractable disorders of nervous system function. The course will expose the students to the incidence, clinical manifestations, pathophysiology and current scientific models of the causes and mechanisms of some of the most common disorders of brain and nervous system function and development throughout the lifespan.
Credits: 2 
Term: 4 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y 
Director: Dr. Jeffrey Noebels 

Physiology of the Visual System (GS-NE- 424)
This is an advanced level course on the physiology of the visual system. It covers the biochemistry, physiology and biophysics of phototransduction, synaptic transmission in the retina and functional architecture of the retina and central visual pathways. Additionally, principles of visual information processing in the eye and in the brain, mechanisms controlling eye movement and gaze stabilization are discussed.
Credits: 3
Terms: 4 (Not offered in AY18; odd year course)
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y
Director: Dr. Samuel Wu

Analyses of Neuronal Function (GS-NE- 431) 
This course will cover the basic concepts of synaptic biology. The topics include the organization of the synapses, neurotransmitter release, neurotransmitter receptors, synaptic plasticity in learning and memory, synaptic organization of microcircuits, and synaptic dysfunction in diseases. Students will learn synaptic biochemistry, cell biology, and physiology and how to study synapses.
Credits: 2 
Term: 2
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y 
Director: Dr. Mingshan Xue

Special Projects (GS-NE-435)
Faculty mentored research for students that have not been admitted to candidacy. 
Credits: Variable 
Term: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: N 
Director: Dr. Matthew Rasband

Genetics for Neuroscience (GS-NE- 441)
This course is intended to teach neuroscience students how to tackle neurobiological problems using genetic strategies and tools. Students will be exposed to the basic concepts in genetics and will be taught the advantages and approaches used in invertebrate model organisms, C. elegans and D. melanogaster, focusing on different genetic, cell biological and neurobiological tools available in those organisms. The course will also focus on mouse genetics, highlighting the different techniques and approaches commonly used in the mouse, followed by genetic approaches in humans. 
Credits: 2
Term: 3 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y 
Director: Dr. Ben Deneen

Preparing for Your Neuroscience Qualifying Exam (GS-NE- 447) 
This course will explain the requirements and expectations of the qualifying exam in Neuroscience. The course is geared specifically towards second year students who have successfully completed their first year coursework and several months’ work in their chosen thesis lab. The course will cover the format of the written and oral exams, tips for structuring the aims and scope of the written proposal, and provide students with opportunity to develop and deliver their oral presentation for feedback from the group. The goal of the course is to help students begin thinking about their work independently and to present their research problem and experimental goals clearly. Ultimately, this course is intended to encourage independent NRSA applications from those students who qualify.
Credits: 1 
Term: 2 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: N 
Directors: Dr. Joanna Jankowsky and Dr. Kim Tolias

Electrical Signaling in the Brain (GS-NE- 448)
This course covers the basics concepts of electrical signaling from the chemical and physical principles involved, to the biological components involved in generating, modulating and transmitting electrical signals in the brain. Students will learn about the foundations of electrical signaling, how ion channel function and regulation actively regulate membrane potential, how to analyze membrane potential using circuitry methods, and how to understand how electrical signals propagate across long distances. Finally we will explore some of the new methods to measure and manipulate electrical signaling in awake behaving animals.
Credits: 3 
Term: 1 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y 
Director: Dr. Paul Pfaffinger

Neuroscience Lab I (GS-NE- 449) 
Students will be introduced to basic approaches of molecular and cellular neuroscience including learning how to model biological systems and how to perform basic laboratory techniques. Primary focus will be on understanding how to break complex neuronal systems down to enable useful  computational analyses as well as the importance of design and controls in different experimental approaches. Students will be exposed to a combination of problem solving, practical demonstrations, and discussions of pluses and minuses for different approaches.
Credit: 1 
Term 1 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: N 
Director: Dr. Paul Pfaffinger

Neuroscience Lab II (GS-NE- 450) 
This course extends the practical laboratory demonstrations begun in GS-NE-449 with hands-on demonstrations in systems and computational neuroscience. Methods to be covered include classical and modern neuro-anatomical techniques, in vivo pharmaco- and opto-genetics, model systems behavioral assays, fMRI, and computational modeling among others. One hour lecture and 3 hour laboratory demonstration per week.
Credits: 1 
Term: 2 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: N 
Director: Dr. Russell Ray

Neural Systems I (GS-NE- 455) 
Neural Systems I course covers the mechanisms involved in processing sensory information by the brain. The course will cover the major sensory systems from organizational principles to the transformation of information. This course will cover the key topics in the processing of sensory information by the brain. The course will also introduce students to in depth analysis of important papers in systems neuroscience to better assist their development of critical reading skills. This course will prepare students for Neural Systems II which will cover how sensory inputs are transformed into motor actions by the brain. Following completion of this course student will understand the locations, functional organization, and functional significance of the main sensory processing streams in the central nervous system.
Credits: 3 
Term: 3 
Counts for 30 hr, requirement: Y 
Director: Dr. Jeffrey Yau

Neural Systems II (GS-NE- 456) 
Neural Systems II course covers the mechanisms involved in transforming sensory inputs into motor action and higher brain functions. The course will cover the spinal, cortical, limbic and cerebellar systems involved in motor planning and execution, behavioral control, and learning and memory. This course will cover the key topics in translation of sensory inputs into patterns of motor behavior as well as brain circuits involved in higher cognitive functions. The course will also introduce students to in depth analysis of important papers in systems neuroscience to better assist their development of critical reading skills. Following completion of this course student will understand the locations, functional organization, and functional significance of the main motor pathways as well as key findings linking brain function to complex cognitive behaviors.
Credits: 3 
Term: 4 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y 
Director: Dr. Roy Sillitoe
Prerequisites: Neural Systems I (GS-NE-455).

Theoretical Neuroscience: Networks and Learning (GS-NE- 457) 
This course provides and introduction to the mathematical theories of computation and learning by neural systems. These theories use concepts from dynamical systems (nonlinearities, attractors, chaos) and concepts from statistics (information, uncertainty, inference) to understand the properties and functions of brain computations (perception, cognition, and action).  
Credits: 4
Term: 3-4
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y
Director: Dr. Zachary Pitkow

Brain Cell Biology and Development (GS-NE- 459)
Brain Cell Biology covers the basic molecular and cellular organization of the Nervous system. The first 2/3 of the course provides an overview and focal lectures on topics of particular importance to understanding molecular and cellular organization of neurons. The last third of the course covers aspects of neural development that integrates principles learned in the first 2/3 of the course.
Credits: 3
Term: 2
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y
Director: Dr. Matthew Rasband

Concepts of Learning and Memory (GS-NE- 462)
This course is designed to introduce graduate students to the field of learning and memory. The course will introduce the student to classical and modern concepts of learning and memory across all levels at which learning and memory is studied, including behavioral, anatomical, cellular, molecular and genetic levels of analysis. The basic concepts of learning and memory will also be related to known disease of learning and memory.
Credits: 3
Term: 4
Counts for 30 hr requirement: Y
Directors: Dr. Mauro Costa-Mattioli and Dr. Daoyun Ji

Special Topics (GS-NE- 463)
Scholarly study directed by a faculty member. Special Topics allows a faculty member to develop individualized courses for students. Special topics cannot be used to satisfy the 30 hr course requirement.
Credits: Variable 
Term: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: N 
Director: Dr. Matthew Rasband

Cellular Neurophysiology I (GS-NE- 464)
This course provides a general background in cellular neurophysiology with an emphasis on an understanding of the properties of excitable nerve membranes and chemical synapses. The first part of the course covers the theory of ions in solutions, ion conduction through membranes, ion transport and distribution, nonlinear properties of neurons, nerve excitation and conduction, and stochastic properties of single ion channels. The second part of the course covers linear cable theory, multiple types of voltage-gated conductances, synaptic transmission including, quantal analysis; the role of calcium and transmitter release, various forms of synaptic plasticity.
Credits: 3 
Term: 4 (Offered in AY18; even year course) 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y 
Director: Dr. Samuel Miao-Sin Wu

Anatomy of the Nervous System (GS-NE- 471)
The course will cover the basic concepts in neuroanatomy in a combined lecture, demonstration, and hands-on lab format. The emphasis will be on the structural organization of the nervous system. A large part of the course will consist of lectures that cover a structure or region of the brain augmented by simultaneous hands-on dissection of fixed sheep brain tissue, histological photographs, and representative MRIs. The students will be divided into small teams and will dissect a sheep brain along with the instructor. It is expected that the teams will interact with the instructors as the lecture/demonstration progresses. Additional lectures and demonstrations will be used to compare and contrast mammalian brains with other species’ brains commonly used in neuroscience research.
Credits: 2 
Term: 2
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y 
Director: Dr. David Shine
Prerequisites: Brain cell Biology and Development (GS-NE-459)

Advanced Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging Laboratory (GS-NE- 472)
This laboratory course will teach students to use blood-oxygen level dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging (BOLD fMRI) to explore human brain function. BOLD fMRI is the most popular method for examining the human brain, but poses unique technical, methodological, and data analysis obstacles. Students will learn how to overcome these obstacles by designing experiments and collecting fMRI data using the 3-tesla MRI scanners in BCM’s Core for Advanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging (CAMRI).
Credits: 2
Term: 4
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: N
Director: Dr. Michael Beauchamp
Prerequisites: Fundamentals of Human Neuroimaging (GS-NE-400) and permission from Course Director

Theoretical Neuroscience: From Cells to Learning Systems (GS-NE- 473)
We present the theoretical foundations of cellular and systems neuroscience from a distinctly quantitative point of view. We develop the mathematical and computational tools as they are needed to model, analyze, visualize and interpret a broad range of experimental data. The material covered includes the biophysical properties of single neurons, their visual sensory responses and how they relate to behavior. Additionally, we cover synaptic transmission and plasticity, as well as its relation to the mechanisms underlying learning and memory, and development of visual sensory neuron properties
Credits: 4
Terms: 1-2
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y
Director: Dr. Fabrizio Gabbiani

Seminar Journal Club in Neuroscience (GS-NE-474)
This course is required of all first and second year students enrolled in the Neuroscience Graduate Program. The course is conducted as a journal club to study the scientific literature, practice critical analysis of the literature, and develop and refine presentation skills. This course is coordinated with the Department of Neuroscience seminar series such that second-year students present papers from the laboratory of the upcoming seminar speaker. All students join in discussion of the paper and evaluation of the journal club presentation.
Credits: 1
Terms: 2, 3, 4
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: N
Director: Dr. Javier Medina and Dr. Jeannie Chin

Core Concepts in Computational Neuroscience (GS-NE-475)
How do brains compute? This course covers the basic concepts underlying neuronal computation, from individual neurons up to networks of neurons in circuits. The focus will be on achieving a computational level understanding: how populations of neurons compute tasks critical for the organism’s survival from sensory input. Students will also be exposed to key ideas from the field of Deep Machine Learning wherein artificial neural networks are employed to solve difficult real-world tasks.
Credits: 1
Term: 4
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: Y
Director: Dr. Ankit Patel
Prerequisites: Neural Systems (GS-NE-455) and Neural Systems II (GS-NE-456)

 Readings (GS-NE- 548)
Faculty directed literature projects that survey a specialized topic of interest.
Credits: Variable 
Term: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: N 
Director: Dr. Matthew Rasband

Research Rotation (GS-NE- 549)
Faculty mentored research for students who have not yet selected a faculty advisor.
Credits: Variable 
Term: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: N 
Director: Dr. Matthew Rasband

Dissertation (GS-NE- 550)
Thesis research directed by a faculty mentor and advisory committee. Open only to candidates for the Ph.D. or M.S. degree. 
Credits: Variable 
Term: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 
Counts for 30 hr. requirement: N 
Director: Dr. Matthew Rasband