Evidence-based summaries are a compilation of existing medical literature to address clinically-relevant questions in the management of patients in the pre-hospital setting. The summaries are not intended to be full protocols or guidelines; the summaries are for topics in which creation of a full protocol is difficult, due to the limited evidence. However, EMS agencies can consider the evidence summarized here when creating their own protocols. To assist with this, the summaries are formatted to include recommendations based on the evidence. Each recommendation has an evidence quality rating (strong, moderate, low, very low) and recommendation strength (strong or weak). The evidence quality and recommendation strength should be individually tailored to the context of the patient population and the EMS agency’s provider scope of practice, skills, knowledge, equipment, and medications to determine how to best create a protocol customized for a given EMS agency.