Vocal fold movement impairment (VFMI) in infants and children may cause stridor, a weak voice or cry, feeding difficulties, aspiration, and impaired pulmonary clearance. Most commonly, vocal fold movement is evaluated via flexible nasolaryngoscopy (FNL). However, FNL in infants and children can be challenging due to extensive movement, floppy supraglottic structures, or secretions. Awake FNL can cause significant changes in physiologic parameters such as blood pressure, pulse, and oxygenation. Finally, coughing and crying during the exam can be potentially aerosol generating.
Laryngeal ultrasound (LUS) can be used to as an alternative, less invasive, means of evaluating vocal fold mobility in infants in children with substantial agreement with traditional FNL.
Limitations: LUS is not a substitute for a complete airway examination, especially when evaluating stridor or respiratory distress. In addition, LUS cannot be used to evaluate vocal fold closure patterns.
- Describe procedural technique for laryngeal ultrasound
- Qualitatively diagnose vocal fold movement impairment on laryngeal ultrasound
- Measure vocal fold-arytenoid angles on laryngeal ultrasound
This activity is designed to meet the educational needs of Physicians, Advanced Practice Providers, Fellows, Residents, Medical Students, and Speech Language Pathologists.
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