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Cardiovascular Sciences

Houston, Texas

BCM faculty, staff and trainees are the heart of the organization.
Section of Cardiovascular Sciences
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Craig J. Hartley, Ph.D.

Professor Craig J. Hartley, Ph.D.

Adjunct Professor, Bioengineering, Rice University

Education and Training

B.S.E.E.: University of Washington, Seattle, 1966
Ph.D.: University of Washington, Seattle, 1970
Postdoctoral Fellow: Rice University, Houston, TX, 1970-1972

Research Interests

Ultrasonic Instrumentation for Cardiovascular Research

Since 1973 Dr. Hartley's laboratory has been developing and applying ultrasonic instrumentation and sensors for measuring blood flow and cardiac function in patients and in animal models of cardiovascular disease. Smaller versions of these implantable, catheter-tip, and noninvasive sensors are now being applied to mice. Collaborative projects are active with many investigators at Baylor, Methodist, and across institutional lines. This laboratory offers a unique combination of capabilities and opportunities to apply engineering principles to the study of the cardiovascular system in animals and in man.

Current Active Projects

Transgenic mice are used as models of human cardiovascular disease, but it has been difficult to evaluate cardiovascular function in small animals. We are designing and applying non invasive techniques to measure cardiac velocities, regional blood flow, cardiac dimensions and volume, arterial pulse wave velocity and diameter pulsations, and blood pressure in mice using ultrasound, ECG, and other modalities. We have been using these methods in mice to characterize several models of cardiovascular dysfunction including: LV hypertrophy, pressure overload, coronary occlusion and reperfusion, hyperthyroidism, senescence, diet restriction, atherosclerosis, and several other genetic models. The goal is to validate the measurement techniques and analytical methods and to establish the mouse as a viable model for studying human cardiovascular pathophysiology. As part of this goal we are in the process of characterizing the mechanical properties of the mouse cardiovascular system in health and disease.

We have recently developed Doppler methods to measure left main coronary blood flow velocity and coronary flow reserve (CFR) noninvasively and serially in anesthetized mice using inhaled isoflurane as a coronary vasodilator. The coronary velocity waveforms, the magnitude of CFR, and the responses to atherosclerotic, ischemic, and hypertrophic cardiac disease models are similar to those in man. We are currently validating isoflurane as a maximal coronary vasodilator and left main CFR as an index of global cardiac functional reserve in mice. The ability to assess CFR in mice quickly and non-invasively will enable us to study the physiological effects of various diseases on the coronary circulation in depth. In addition, much of what we learn about global CFR and coronary flow waveforms in mice may be translated to man.

Selected Publications

Hartley CJ, AK Reddy, S Madala, LH Michael, ML Entman, GE Taffet, "Effects of Isoflurane on coronary flow velocity reserve in young, old, and ApoE-/- mice measured by Doppler ultrasound." Ultrasound in Med & Biol 33: 512-521, 2007.

Little SH, Igo SR, Pirat B, McCulloch M, Hartley CJ, Nose Y, Zoghbi WA. "In vitro validation of real time three dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for direct measurement of proximal isovelocity surface area in mitral regurgitation." Am J Cardiol 99: 1440 1447, 2007.

Reddy AK, Amador Noguez D, Darlington GJ, Scholz BA, Michael LH, Hartley CJ, Entman ML, Taffet GE. "Cardiac function in young and old little mice." J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci: 1319-1325, 2007.

Pirat B, Khoury DS, Hartley CJ, Tiller L, Rao L, Schulz DG, Nagueh SF, Zoghbi WA. "A novel feature tracking echocardiographic method for the quantitation of regional myocardial function: validation in an animal model of ischemia reperfusion." J Am Coll Cardiol 51: 651 659, 2008.

Little SH, SR Igo, B Pirat, M McCulloch, CJ Hartley, Y Nosé, WA Zoghbi, "An ultrasound imaging model of mitral valve regurgitation: Design and evaluation." Ultrasound in Med & Biol 34: 647-654, 2008.

Hartley, CJ, AK Reddy, S Madala, LH Michael, ML Entman, GE Taffet, "Doppler estimation of reduced coronary flow reserve in mice with pressure overload cardiac hyptertrophy." Ultrasound in Med & Biol 34: 892-901, 2008.

Doursout MF, T Oguchi, UM Fischer, YY Liang, B Chelly, CJ Hartley, JE Chelly, "Distribution of Nitric Oxide Synthase Isoforms in a Porcine Endotoxin Model." Shock 29: 692-702, 2008.

SH Little, B Pirat, R Kumar, SR Igo, M McCulloch, CJ Hartley, J Xu, WA Zoghbi, "Three dimensional color Doppler echocardiography for direct measurement of vena contracta area in mitral regurgitation in vitro: Validation and clinical experience," J. Am. Coll. Cardiol. Img. 1: 695 704, 2008.

Pirat B, Little SH, Igo SR, McCulloch M, Nosé Y, Hartley CJ, Zoghbi WA, "Direct Measurement of Proximal Isovelocity Surface Area by Real Time Three Dimensional Color Doppler for Quantitation of Aortic Regurgitant Volume: An In Vitro Validation." J Am Soc Echocardiogr 22: 306-313, 2009.

Hanasono MM, Ogunleye O, Yang JS, Hartley CJ, Miller MJ., "Changes in Blood Velocity Following Microvascular Free Tissue Transfer." J Reconstr Microsurg 25:417 24, 2009.

Reddy AK, Madala S., Jones AD, Caro WA, Eberth JF, Pham TT, Taffet GE, Hartley CJ, "Multichannel pulsed Doppler signal processing for vascular measurements in mice." Ultrasound in Med Biol 35:2042-2054, 2009.

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